Archive | Soil Fertility

WICST has monitored the status of available potassium and phosphorus under the various cropping system since the start of the Trial. Because leaching and other losses are generally minimal with these two nutrients, changes in soil test levels should be directly related to inputs (fertilizer and manure) and output (crop removal). The average initial soil test phosphorus (STP) and soil test potassium (STK) levels at the start of the trial were very high at both WICST sites and as of 2005, STK levels on some systems have dropped to optimal or low requiring fertilizer inputs.

Nutrient and Alkalinity Removal by Corn Grain, Stover and Cob Harvest in Upper Midwest USA

The objective of this study was to examine differences between corn grain; leaves, stalks and husks; and cobs in terms of NPK nutrient content and fluxes, alkalinity and calcium carbonate equivalent values, S content, and energy density, with an eye toward harvest as biofuel for cellulosic ethanol production, direct combustion or gasification. Authors: M. Avila-Segura, P. [...] More »

Refining the Sampling Plan for Routine Soil Tests

Sound management of agricultural production systems requires routine testing for soil organic matter, acidity, P, and K. Unfortunately, representative soil samples are difficult to obtain due to the inherent variability of most soils and the additional variability introduced by farming activities. Early soil tests confirmed that there was a wide range of soil [...] More »

Cropping System Impacts on Changes in Subsoil P and K Fertility Status

In the 1950’s it was recognized that the subsoil could contribute nutrients to crops and that “available phosphorus and potassium are relatively constant in the subsoils of most soil types.” (Beatty & Corey, 1962). Thus, M.T. Beatty and R.B. Corey from the Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin in conjunction with the Wisconsin Geologic [...] More »

WICST Soil Test P and K at depth - Arlington Site

Since the initiation of the WICST plots in 1990, soil samples have been collected, analyzed, and archived to follow soil test P and K over time at depth from 0-6″, 6-12″, 12-24″ and 24-36″.  The trial at the Arlington site has been sampled for 18 years and data for the various systems are shown here. More »

Transition from Conventional Agriculture to Best Management Practices at WICST

The Wisconsin Integrated Cropping Systems Trial exists as a living laboratory for the major cropping systems present in Wisconsin, as well as some organic practices that were still emerging at WICST’s inception in 1989. Even as a long-term experiment, in which much the same rotations and the same inputs are employed throughout, the [...] More »

WICST Soil test P and K at Depth - Lakeland Site

Starting in 1990, one treatment (phase) from each system was inititated.  By 1993, all phases of each system were up and running.  Soil cores were pulled from the surface to 3 feet into the profile every 7 years since the plot was entered into the trial. Data will be analyzed to determine in nutrient stratification [...] More »

WICST Soil Test P and K at Surface- Lakeland Site (1992-2002)

Yearly soil test P and K (ppm) from Lakeland site at 6″ depth.  Data is by phase and is averaged across 4 reps per year. More »

Coupling of H+ and N Cycles in Several Common Agroecosystems of Midwestern United States

<!– /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:”"; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:”Times New Roman”; mso-fareast-font-family:”Times New Roman”;} @page Section1 {size:8.5in 11.0in; margin:1.0in 1.25in 1.0in 1.25in; mso-header-margin:.5in; mso-footer-margin:.5in; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} –> In modern agroecosystems, soil acidification and loss of cations results mainly from two sources: 1) nitrification of excess ammoniacal [...] More »

WICST Soil Test P and K at Surface - Arlington Site

The changes in soil test P and K (0-6″ depth) are shown in table format for each phase of each system averaged across 4 reps at the Arlington Research Station site. More »

Corn response to commercial fertilizer in a low input cash grain system

Introduction Corn yields were lower than expected in the corn-soybean-wheat/red clover (CS3) rotation during the 1992 and 1993 growing seasons. Experiments were initiated at LAC and ARS in 1994 to determine the cause of the low yields and to find out whether adding some purchased inputs would be cost-effective. Soil fertility and weed pressure [...] More »